This release is a beta version. Please be aware that the data will not be archived and should not yet be referenced in publications, expecting long-term retrieval. The SPARQL endpoint was not updated.
version 15.beta
Gene expression data in animals

Bgee is a database for retrieval and comparison of gene expression patterns across multiple animal species.
It provides an intuitive answer to the question "where is a gene expressed?" and supports research in cancer and agriculture as well as evolutionary biology.

Gene expression data

Bgee is a database for retrieval and comparison of gene expression patterns across multiple animal species, produced from multiple data types (bulk RNA-Seq, single-cell RNA-Seq, Affymetrix, in situ hybridization, and EST data) and from multiple data sets (including GTEx data).

Simply normal

Bgee is based exclusively on curated "normal", healthy wild-type, expression data (e.g., no gene knock-out, no treatment, no disease), to provide a comparable reference of normal gene expression.

Comparable between species

Bgee produces calls of presence/absence of expression, and of differential over-/under-expression, integrated along with information of gene orthology, and of homology between organs. This allows comparisons of expression patterns between species.


Species with data in Bgee(click on species to see more details)
H. sapiens

H. sapiens

human

M. musculus

M. musculus

mouse

D. rerio

D. rerio

zebrafish

D. melanogaster

D. melanogaster

fruit fly

C. elegans

C. elegans

nematode

C. lupus familiaris

C. lupus familiaris

dog

F. catus

F. catus

cat

E. caballus

E. caballus

horse

S. scrofa

S. scrofa

pig

B. taurus

B. taurus

cattle

C. hircus

C. hircus

Goat

O. aries

O. aries

Sheep

O. cuniculus

O. cuniculus

rabbit

C. porcellus

C. porcellus

guinea pig

G. gallus

G. gallus

chicken

M. gallopavo

M. gallopavo

Wild turkey

O. anatinus

O. anatinus

platypus

C. jacchus

C. jacchus

White-tufted-ear marmoset

C. atys

C. atys

Sooty mangabey

M. fascicularis

M. fascicularis

Crab-eating macaque

M. mulatta

M. mulatta

macaque

M. nemestrina

M. nemestrina

Pig-tailed macaque

P. anubis

P. anubis

Olive baboon

G. gorilla

G. gorilla

gorilla

P. paniscus

P. paniscus

bonobo

P. troglodytes

P. troglodytes

chimpanzee

M. murinus

M. murinus

Gray mouse lemur

C. sabaeus

C. sabaeus

Green monkey

M. javanica

M. javanica

Malayan pangolin

R. norvegicus

R. norvegicus

rat

H. glaber

H. glaber

Naked mole rat

M. domestica

M. domestica

opossum

X. laevis

X. laevis

African clawed frog

X. tropicalis

X. tropicalis

western clawed frog

A. carolinensis

A. carolinensis

green anole

L. oculatus

L. oculatus

Spotted gar

A. anguilla

A. anguilla

European freshwater eel

A. mexicanus

A. mexicanus

Blind cave fish

E. lucius

E. lucius

Northern pike

S. salar

S. salar

Atlantic salmon

G. morhua

G. morhua

Atlantic cod

P. reticulata

P. reticulata

Guppy

O. latipes

O. latipes

Japanese rice fish

A. calliptera

A. calliptera

Eastern happy

N. brichardi

N. brichardi

Fairy cichlid

S. maximus

S. maximus

Turbot

G. aculeatus

G. aculeatus

Three-spined stickleback

N. furzeri

N. furzeri

Turquoise killifish

B. lanceolatum

B. lanceolatum

Common lancelet

L. chalumnae

L. chalumnae

Coelacanth

D. pseudoobscura

D. pseudoobscura

Drosophila pseudoobscura

D. simulans

D. simulans

Drosophila simulans

News (features are being added incrementally)
2021-06-15
Release of Bgee version 15 beta

This is a major update of Bgee, with 28 new species; integration of single-cell RNA-Seq full-length data; improved treatment of bulk RNA-Seq, and addition of new libraries; and improved statistical treatment to control for False Discovery Rate. All in situ hybridization data retrieved from Model Organism Databases, and all genomes and underlying ontologies, have been updated.

It is for now released as a beta version. Please note that the data for this beta release will not be archived and should not be used in publications, expecting long-term retrieval. The SPARQL endpoint was not updated.

  • We are happy to announce that Bgee now includes single-cell RNA-Seq full-length data. We have designed statistical methods allowing to produce reliable present expression calls and expression scores for this data type. We also use annotation procedures allowing to capture with a high precision the cell types studied and their anatomical origin (post-composition of ontology terms). It is straightforwardly integrated in all our tools, along with all other data (bulk RNA-Seq, Affymetrix, in situ hybridization, Expressed Sequence Tags). For this release, we have integrated 1 481 libraries in human and mouse.
  • 28 species have been added, while 5 species have been discontinued, due to new criteria on anatomical coverage. In total, Bgee now integrates expression data in 52 species.
  • We have improved the control of False Discovery Rate to produce present/absent expression calls. Rather than integrating boolean calls (where present calls always dominate), we produce a p-value for each expression call from each sample, and integrate these to produce a single call for each gene in each condition, using a Benjamini-Hochberg procedure to control for FDR.
  • We have improved the treatment of bulk RNA-Seq data to generate more reliable absent expression calls. We now annotate precisely the protocol used to generate libraries (e.g., polyA, ribo-minus), and the gene types targeted (e.g., protein coding, miRNA). With this information, we produce absent expression calls for a gene only if its type was accessible to the RNA-Seq protocol used.
  • 5 818 bulk RNA-Seq libraries have been added, and 47 libraries removed following improved quality controls.
    • For model organisms:
      • 261 added, 12 removed, for Homo sapiens (total library count: 5 984)
      • 73 added for Mus musculus (total: 566)
      • 14 for Danio rerio (total: 161)
      • 4 added, 35 removed, for Drosophila melanogaster (total: 257)
    • For animals of agronomic and veterinary relevance (see also ray-finned fish below):
      • 1 356 new libraries for Bos taurus (total: 2 774)
      • 594 for Meleagris gallopavo (new species)
      • 434 for Ovis aries (new species)
      • 79 for Sus scrofa (total: 528)
      • 64 for Capra hircus (new species)
      • 36 for Gallus gallus (total: 84)
      • 3 for Equus caballus (total: 248)
      • 1 for Cavia porcellus (total: 284)
      • 1 for Canis lupus familiaris (total: 162)
    • For non-model primates:
      • 814 for Papio anubis (new species)
      • 409 for Chlorocebus sabaeus (new species)
      • 37 for Macaca fascicularis (new species)
      • 19 for Macaca nemestrina (new species)
      • 18 for Cercocebus atys (new species)
      • 18 for Microcebus murinus (new species)
      • 14 for Callithrix jacchus (new species)
      • 4 for Macaca mulatta (total: 264)
    • For non-model ray-finned fish:
      • 333 for Oryzias latipes (new species)
      • 274 for Gasterosteus aculeatus (new species)
      • 165 for Nothobranchius furzeri (new species)
      • 64 for Astyanax mexicanus (new species)
      • 57 for Gadus morhua (new species)
      • 45 for Poecilia reticulata (new species)
      • 38 for Astatotilapia calliptera (new species)
      • 36 for Anguilla anguilla (new species)
      • 36 for Scophthalmus maximus (new species)
      • 32 for Neolamprologus brichardi (new species)
      • 32 for Salmo salar (new species)
      • 24 for Esox lucius (new species)
      • 21 for Lepisosteus oculatus (new species)
    • Other species:
      • 274 added for Heterocephalus glaber (new species)
      • 57 for Xenopus laevis (new species)
      • 52 for Branchiostoma lanceolatum (new species)
      • 14 for Latimeria chalumnae (new species)
      • 11 for Manis javanica (new species)
    The following species have been discontinued: Erinaceus europaeus, Drosophila ananassae, Drosophila mojavensis, Drosophila virilis, Drosophila yakuba.
  • We have updated all data from Model Organism Databases (BDGP, FlyBase, MGI, WormBase, Xenbase, ZFIN)
  • We have updated all genome information and all underlying ontologies used (e.g., Uberon)

You can still access Bgee version 14.2 at https://bgee.org/bgee15_0/bgee14_2.

2021-02-22
Release of Bgee version 14.2

This is an incremental update of Bgee, improving data coverage mostly for animals of agronomic and veterinary relevance, and adding new functionalities to the website:

  • On all gene pages you will now find links to ortholog and paralog gene pages, and links to directly run an expression comparison analysis on them.
  • We have made TopAnat faster when used with no decorrelation method.

We have added new RNA-Seq libraries to Bgee. For animals of agronomic and veterinary relevance:

  • Bos taurus: 1299 RNA-Seq libraries added
  • Sus scrofa: 286 RNA-Seq libraries added
  • Cavia porcellus: 255 RNA-Seq libraries added
  • Oryctolagus cuniculus: 49 RNA-Seq libraries added
  • Canis lupus familiaris: 20 RNA-Seq libraries added
  • Equus caballus: 13 RNA-Seq libraries added
  • Felis catus : 2 RNA-Seq libraries added

For other species in Bgee:

  • Homo sapiens: 47 RNA-Seq libraries added
  • Mus musculus: 176 RNA-Seq libraries added
  • Macaca mulatta : 22 RNA-Seq libraries added
  • Rattus norvegicus: 10 RNA-Seq libraries added
  • Monodelphis domestica: 7 RNA-Seq libraries added
  • Gorilla gorilla: 2 RNA-Seq libraries added

All calls of presence/absence of expression, expression scores, and all the Bgee tools and download files, have been updated accordingly.

Other changes in this release:

  • We have made changes to the way we propagate expression calls along the graph of conditions: calls of absence of expression are no longer propagated to child anatomical entities, so that an information of absence of expression is more reliable from now on.
  • We have also corrected some relations between anatomical entities that were incorrectly missing in our database, improving the propagation of expression calls as well.
2020-08-20
  • Update of TopAnat:
    • More information is now displayed about the list of genes you entered.
    • It is now possible to use data from any developmental and life stage in a same analysis. Previously, it was only possible to perform analyses for embryonic stage on the one hand, post-embryonic stage on the other hand.
    • Fix various bugs in the interface.
    • Improve queries to the server for faster loading of existing results.
  • New publication page listing the publications related to Bgee, and describing how to cite us.
  • Fixed several broken links to external resources.
2020-03-26
Release of Bgee version 14.1

This is an incremental update of Bgee, with an updated RNA-Seq dataset, using the same genomes and ontologies as for the previous version Bgee 14.0. New RNA-Seq libraries have been added; some libraries previously integrated in Bgee have been discarded following corrections and improvements of quality controls. The Affymetrix, in situ hybridization, and EST datasets, are the same as for the previous release of Bgee 14.0. All calls of presence/absence of expression, expression scores, and all the Bgee tools and download files, have been updated accordingly.

For most species in Bgee, notably non-human primates and farm and domestic animals, this represents a major improvement of the anatomy and life stage coverage of the data, making all Bgee tools much more useful, notably TopAnat and the gene pages.

  • For human, 663 RNA-Seq libraries added, 13 removed, for a total of 5,676 libraries in Bgee 14.1; there are now in total 1,794 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 334 anatomical entities.
  • For model organisms:
    • 197 libraries added for mouse (total 330 libraries); there are now in total 13,821 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 3,275 anatomical entities.
    • 193 added for Xenopus tropicalis (total 259); 4,808 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 395 anatomical entities.
    • 239 added for Drosophila melanogaster (total 253); 5,704 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 1,138 anatomical entities.
    • 80 added for Danio rerio (total 147); 7,307 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 1,292 anatomical entities.
    • 9 libraries removed for Caenorhabditis elegans (total 41), following improvements of quality controls; 745 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 360 anatomical entities.
  • Addition of data also in non-human primates:
    • 235 libraries added for Pan troglodytes (total 250 libraries); there are now in total 70 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 26 anatomical entities.
    • 196 libraries added, 48 removed for Macaca mulatta (total 238); 50 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 25 anatomical entities.
    • 1 library added for Pan paniscus (total 13); 12 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 7 anatomical entities.
  • For farm and domestic animals:
    • 224 libraries added for Equus caballus (total 232); there are now in total 58 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 24 anatomical entities.
    • 159 added for Sus scrofa (total 169); 82 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 41 anatomical entities.
    • 135 added for Canis lupus familiaris (total 141); 105 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 54 anatomical entities.
    • 88 added for Bos taurus (total 121); 22 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 19 anatomical entities.
    • 49 added for Oryctolagus cuniculus (total 55); 24 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 19 anatomical entities.
    • 3 added for Gallus gallus (total 48); 30 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 14 anatomical entities.
    • 23 added for Felis catus (total 32); 15 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 11 anatomical entities.
    • 19 added for Cavia porcellus (total 28); 6 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 5 anatomical entities.
  • Other species with changes:
    • 89 libraries added for Monodelphis domestica (total 108); there are now in total 51 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 24 anatomical entities.
    • 70 added for Rattus norvegicus (total 106); 64 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 22 anatomical entities.
    • 27 added for Anolis carolinensis (total 31); 20 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 15 anatomical entities.
    • 4 added for Ornithorhynchus anatinus (total 21); 16 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 9 anatomical entities.
    • 2 added, 4 removed for Drosophila simulans (total 15); 7 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 4 anatomical entities.
    • 4 removed for Drosophila pseudoobscura (total 10); 6 conditions annotated in Bgee, in 4 anatomical entities.
  • Update of the Expression Comparison page to display expression scores rather than expression ranks.
  • Update of the menu, of the collaboration page, of the SPARQL documentation page (notably to access archived version of Bgee, starting with Bgee 14.0).

You can still access Bgee version 14.0 at https://bgee.org/bgee15_0/bgee14.

2019-10-05
2019-05-21
2019-05-12
  • Update of the gene search page:
    • Addition of a gene search result page (i.e. search with "HBB")
    • Improvement of the speed of autocompletion
  • Modification of gene pages to display gene name synoyms, and cross-references to other resources
2019-04-05
2018-02-14
Release of Bgee version 14.0:
  • Release of the production version of Bgee release 14:
You can still access Bgee 13 at https://bgee.org/bgee15_0/bgee13.
2017-05-16
Release of Bgee version 14-beta:
  • 12 new species, bringing the total to 29:
    • new mammal species: horse, rabbit, dog, cat, guinea pig, hedgehog;
    • new Drosophila species: D. ananassae, D. mojavensis, D. pseudoobscura, D. simulans, D. virilis, D. yakuba.
  • All species now have RNA-Seq data.
  • Addition of curated human RNA-Seq data from GTEx, removing unhealthy samples; see human data.
  • Improved quality annotation of calls: replacement of "low quality" / "high quality" by:
    • "Gold": ≥2 experiments with a high confidence calls;
    • "Silver": 1 experiment with a high confidence call, or ≥2 experiments with low confidence calls;
    • "Bronze": 1 experiment with a low confidence call; these are not shown by default.
  • Update of download pages to make it easier to chose files to retrieve; inclusion of gene ranks (as used in gene pages) in call files..
You can still access Bgee 13 at https://bgee.org/bgee15_0/bgee13.
2016-07-06
Release of Bgee version 13.2:
  • Major update of our gene page and ranking algorithm:
    • We are happy to announce that we have updated our ranking algorithm allowing to discover the most relevant anatomical entities and life stages where a gene is expressed. We hope that you will appreciate the noticeable improvements.
    • The gene page has been updated to display the rank scores of conditions where a gene is expressed, allowing to easily identify major functional shifts in gene expression.
    Give a try to this updated ranking by searching for your favorite gene, or by using the example links, on the gene search page.
  • We now display more information about the sources of data used in Bgee, see the new data source page, and new information added to the gene pages.
2016-05-09
Release of our new BgeeDB R package, a package for the annotation and gene expression data download from Bgee database into R, and TopAnat analysis (see also Bioconductor website).
2016-03-22
Various improvements of our new interface.
2016-03-09
Release of our new gene page, allowing to discover the most relevant conditions where a gene is expressed. This update also includes an important revamping of our interfaces.
2015-12-24
Major update of TopAnat. Happy Christmas!
2015-11-24
We are happy to release of our new exclusive tool for gene expression enrichment analyses: TopAnat. This is a tool with absolutely no equivalent, developped in collaboration with the Web-Team of the SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Check it out!
2015-08-26
Update of the home page.
2015-06-08
Release of Bgee version 13.1:
  • Update of the website interfaces.
  • New download page providing processed expression values.
  • Addition of mouse in situ data from MGI, see mouse data.
  • Differential expression data have been added for zebrafish, chimpanzee, gorilla, and opossum.
  • Addition of new multi-species differential expression data, see for instance chimpanzee/macaque comparison.
  • New format to provide gene orthology information in multi-species files, see for instance OMA Hierarchical orthologous groups documentation.
  • Removal of data incorrectly considered as normal in C. elegans, see worm data.
  • Improved filtering of propagated no-expression calls. As a result, complete expression calls files do not contain invalid conditions anymore.
  • Filtering of invalid developmental stages for differential expression analyses.
2015-04-16
Release of the multi-species differential expression data (across anatomy) for 6 groups, see download overview.
2015-03-03
Release of the single-species differential expression data for 11 species, see download overview.
2014-12-19
Release of the single-species expression data for 17 species, see download overview.

Images from Wikimedia Commons. In most cases, pictures corresponds to the sequenced strains. Show information about original images.

Homo sapiens picture by Leonardo da Vinci (Life time: 1519) [Public domain]. See H. sapiens picture via Wikimedia Commons

Mus musculus picture by Rasbak [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], See M. musculus picture via Wikimedia Commons

Danio rerio picture by Azul (Own work) [see page for license], See D. rerio picture via Wikimedia Commons

Drosophila melanogaster picture by André Karwath aka Aka (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-2.5], See D. melanogaster picture via Wikimedia Commons

Caenorhabditis elegans picture by Bob Goldstein, UNC Chapel Hill http://bio.unc.edu/people/faculty/goldstein/ (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0], See C. elegans picture via Wikimedia Commons

Pan troglodytes picture by Thomas Lersch (Own work) [GFDL, CC-BY-SA-3.0 or CC-BY-2.5], See P. troglodytes picture via Wikimedia Commons

Pan paniscus picture by Ltshears (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 or GFDL], See P. paniscus picture via Wikimedia Commons

Gorilla gorilla picture by Brocken Inaglory (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 or GFDL], See G. gorilla picture via Wikimedia Commons

Macaca mulatta picture by Aiwok (Own work) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0], See M. mulatta picture via Wikimedia Commons

Rattus norvegicus picture by Reg Mckenna (originally posted to Flickr as Wild Rat) [CC-BY-2.0], See R. norvegicus picture via Wikimedia Commons

Bos taurus picture by User Robert Merkel on en.wikipedia (US Department of Agriculture) [Public domain], See B. taurus picture via Wikimedia Commons

Sus scrofa picture by Joshua Lutz (Own work) [Public domain], See S. scrofa picture via Wikimedia Commons

Equus caballus picture by Doug Antczak Baker Institute for Animal Health College of Veterinary Medicine Cornell University [Public Domain], See E. caballus picture via Wikimedia Commons

Oryctolagus cuniculus picture by JJ Harrison (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0], See O. cuniculus picture via Wikimedia Commons

Canis lupus familiaris picture by Mood210 (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0], See C. lupus familiaris picture via Wikimedia Commons

Felis catus picture [CC-BY-SA-3.0], See F. catus picture via Wikimedia Commons

Cavia porcellus picture by Variraptor (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0], See C. porcellus picture via Wikimedia Commons

Monodelphis domestica picture by Marsupial Genome Sheds Light on the Evolution of Immunity. Hill E, PLoS Biology Vol. 4/3/2006, e75 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0040075 [CC-BY-2.5], See M. domestica picture via Wikimedia Commons

Ornithorhynchus anatinus picture by Dr. Philip Bethge (private) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0], See O. anatinus picture via Wikimedia Commons

Gallus gallus picture by Subramanya C K (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0], See G. gallus picture via Wikimedia Commons

Anolis carolinensis picture by PiccoloNamek (Moved from Image:P1010027.jpg) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], See A. carolinensis picture via Wikimedia Commons

Xenopus tropicalis picture by Václav Gvoždík (http://calphotos.berkeley.edu) [CC-BY-SA-2.5 or CC-BY-SA-3.0], See X. tropicalis picture via Wikimedia Commons

Xenopus laevis picture by Brian Gratwicke (https://www.flickr.com/photos/19731486@N07/8325732255) [CC-BY-2.0], See X. laevis picture via Wikimedia Commons

Branchiostoma lanceolatum picture by Hans Hillewaert (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-4.0], See B. lanceolatum picture via Wikimedia Commons

Latimeria chalumnae picture by Alberto Fernandez Fernandez (Own work) [GFDL, CC-BY-SA-3.0 or CC-BY-SA-2.5], See L. chalumnae picture via Wikimedia Commons

Lepisosteus oculatus picture by Brian Gratwicke (Own work) [CC-BY-2.5], See L. oculatus picture via Wikimedia Commons

Anguilla anguilla picture by GerardM (http://www.digischool.nl/bi/onderwaterbiologie/) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], See A. anguilla picture via Wikimedia Commons

Astyanax mexicanus picture by H. Zell (Own work) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], See A. mexicanus picture via Wikimedia Commons

Esox lucius picture by Jik jik (Own work) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0], See E. lucius picture via Wikimedia Commons

Salmo salar picture by Hans-Petter Fjeld (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-2.5], See S. salar picture via Wikimedia Commons

Gadus morhua picture by Hans-Petter Fjeld (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-2.5], See G. morhua picture via Wikimedia Commons

Poecilia reticulata picture by Per Harald Olsen (Own work) [GFDL or CC-BY-3.0], See P. reticulata picture via Wikimedia Commons

Oryzias latipes picture by NOZO (Own work) [GFDL or CC-BY-3.0], See O. latipes picture via Wikimedia Commons

Astatotilapia calliptera picture by Alexandra Tyers (https://www.flickr.com/photos/52993488@N03/5441877789) [CC-BY-SA-2.0], See A. calliptera picture via Wikimedia Commons

Meleagris gallopavo picture by Riki7 (Own work) [Public domain], See M. gallopavo picture via Wikimedia Commons

Callithrix jacchus picture by Leszek Leszczynski (https://www.flickr.com/photos/leszekleszczynski/6952548339/) [CC-BY-2.0], See C. jacchus picture via Wikimedia Commons

Cercocebus atys picture by Giulio Russo Photography (Own work) [CC-BY-4.0], See C. atys picture via Wikimedia Commons

Macaca fascicularis picture by André Ueberbach (Eigene Aufnahme von André Ueberbach/Own production) [CC-BY-SA-2.0 DE], See M. fascicularis picture via Wikimedia Commons

Macaca nemestrina picture by Hectonichus (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 or GFDL], See M. nemestrina picture via Wikimedia Commons

Papio anubis picture by Charles J. Sharp (Own work, from Sharp Photography, http://www.sharpphotography.co.uk/) [CC-BY-SA-4.0], See P. anubis picture via Wikimedia Commons

Capra hircus picture by flagstaffotos [at] gmail.com (Own work) [GFDL], See C. hircus picture via Wikimedia Commons

Ovis aries picture by Jacquie Wingate from Recovery, USA (https://www.flickr.com/photos/11948828@N00/2212889583/) [CC-BY-SA-1.0], See O. aries picture via Wikimedia Commons

Manis javanica picture by Frendi Apen Irawan (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-4.0], See M. javanica picture via Wikimedia Commons

Heterocephalus glaber picture by Roman Klementschitz, Wien (Own work) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], See H. glaber picture via Wikimedia Commons

Microcebus murinus picture by Charles J. Sharp (Own work, from Sharp Photography, http://www.sharpphotography.co.uk/) [CC-BY-SA-3.0], See M. murinus picture via Wikimedia Commons

Neolamprologus brichardi picture by David Midgley (www.sydneycichlid.com) (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-2.5], See N. brichardi picture via Wikimedia Commons

Scophthalmus maximus picture by Luc Viatour (Own work http://www.lucnix.be/) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0], See S. maximus picture via Wikimedia Commons

Chlorocebus sabaeus picture by Charles J. Sharp (Own work, from Sharp Photography, http://www.sharpphotography.co.uk/) [CC-BY-SA-4.0], See C. sabaeus picture via Wikimedia Commons

Gasterosteus aculeatus picture by Viridiflavus (Own work) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], See G. aculeatus picture via Wikimedia Commons

Nothobranchius furzeri picture by Ugau (Own work, Leibniz Institute for Age Research - Fritz Lipmann Institute (FLI), Jena, Germany) [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], See N. furzeri picture via Wikimedia Commons

Drosophila pseudoobscura picture, See D. pseudoobscura picture via Ensembl Metazoa

Drosophila simulans picture by Nicolas Gompel [CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 FR], See D. simulans picture via Nicolas Gompel's lab website

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